I asked seven anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians if they would rather have been a typical Indian or a typical European in 1491. None was delighted by the question, because it required judging the past by the standards of today—a fallacy disparaged as “presentism” by social scientists. But every one chose to be an Indian. Some early colonists gave the same answer. Horrifying the leaders of Jamestown and Plymouth, scores of English ran off to live with the Indians. My ancestor shared their desire, which is what led to the trumped-up murder charges against him—or that’s what my grandfather told me, anyway.
As for the Indians, evidence suggests that they often viewed Europeans with disdain. The Hurons, a chagrined missionary reported, thought the French possessed “little intelligence in comparison to themselves.” Europeans, Indians said, were physically weak, sexually untrustworthy, atrociously ugly, and just plain dirty. (Spaniards, who seldom if ever bathed, were amazed by the Aztec desire for personal cleanliness.) A Jesuit reported that the “Savages” were disgusted by handkerchiefs: “They say, we place what is unclean in a fine white piece of linen, and put it away in our pockets as something very precious, while they throw it upon the ground.” The Micmac scoffed at the notion of French superiority. If Christian civilization was so wonderful, why were its inhabitants leaving?
Like people everywhere, Indians survived by cleverly exploiting their environment. Europeans tended to manage land by breaking it into fragments for farmers and herders. Indians often worked on such a grand scale that the scope of their ambition can be hard to grasp. They created small plots, as Europeans did (about 1.5 million acres of terraces still exist in the Peruvian Andes), but they also reshaped entire landscapes to suit their purposes. A principal tool was fire, used to keep down underbrush and create the open, grassy conditions favorable for game. Rather than domesticating animals for meat, Indians retooled whole ecosystems to grow bumper crops of elk, deer, and bison. The first white settlers in Ohio found forests as open as English parks—they could drive carriages through the woods. Along the Hudson River the annual fall burning lit up the banks for miles on end; so flashy was the show that the Dutch in New Amsterdam boated upriver to goggle at the blaze like children at fireworks. In North America, Indian torches had their biggest impact on the Midwestern prairie, much or most of which was created and maintained by fire. Millennia of exuberant burning shaped the plains into vast buffalo farms. When Indian societies disintegrated, forest invaded savannah in Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Texas Hill Country. Is it possible that the Indians changed the Americas more than the invading Europeans did? “The answer is probably yes for most regions for the next 250 years or so” after Columbus, William Denevan wrote, “and for some regions right up to the present time.”
Quoted from the essay "1941" written by Charles C. Mann, about the major impact that Native Americans had on the Americas (ecologically and culturally) before white people invaded, bringing their diseases and shoving Christianity down the Indians’ throats and murdering them and banning their cultures.
Check out the whole piece (which is rather long). (P.S thanks to @cazalis for sending me this great link)
Human history, in Crosby’s interpretation, is marked by two world-altering centers of invention: the Middle East and central Mexico, where Indian groups independently created nearly all of the Neolithic innovations, writing included. The Neolithic Revolution began in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago. In the next few millennia humankind invented the wheel, the metal tool, and agriculture. The Sumerians eventually put these inventions together, added writing, and became the world’s first civilization. Afterward Sumeria’s heirs in Europe and Asia frantically copied one another’s happiest discoveries; innovations ricocheted from one corner of Eurasia to another, stimulating technological progress. Native Americans, who had crossed to Alaska before Sumeria, missed out on the bounty. “They had to do everything on their own,” Crosby says. Remarkably, they succeeded.
When Columbus appeared in the Caribbean, the descendants of the world’s two Neolithic civilizations collided, with overwhelming consequences for both. American Neolithic development occurred later than that of the Middle East, possibly because the Indians needed more time to build up the requisite population density. Without beasts of burden they could not capitalize on the wheel (for individual workers on uneven terrain skids are nearly as effective as carts for hauling), and they never developed steel. But in agriculture they handily outstripped the children of Sumeria. Every tomato in Italy, every potato in Ireland, and every hot pepper in Thailand came from this hemisphere. Worldwide, more than half the crops grown today were initially developed in the Americas.
Maize, as corn is called in the rest of the world, was a triumph with global implications. Indians developed an extraordinary number of maize varieties for different growing conditions, which meant that the crop could and did spread throughout the planet. Central and Southern Europeans became particularly dependent on it; maize was the staple of Serbia, Romania, and Moldavia by the nineteenth century. Indian crops dramatically reduced hunger, Crosby says, which led to an Old World population boom.
Along with peanuts and manioc, maize came to Africa and transformed agriculture there, too. “The probability is that the population of Africa was greatly increased because of maize and other American Indian crops,” Crosby says. “Those extra people helped make the slave trade possible.” Maize conquered Africa at the time when introduced diseases were leveling Indian societies. The Spanish, the Portuguese, and the British were alarmed by the death rate among Indians, because they wanted to exploit them as workers. Faced with a labor shortage, the Europeans turned their eyes to Africa. The continent’s quarrelsome societies helped slave traders to siphon off millions of people. The maize-fed population boom, Crosby believes, let the awful trade continue without pumping the well dry.
Back home in the Americas, Indian agriculture long sustained some of the world’s largest cities. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán dazzled Hernán Cortés in 1519; it was bigger than Paris, Europe’s greatest metropolis. The Spaniards gawped like hayseeds at the wide streets, ornately carved buildings, and markets bright with goods from hundreds of miles away. They had never before seen a city with botanical gardens, for the excellent reason that none existed in Europe. The same novelty attended the force of a thousand men that kept the crowded streets immaculate. (Streets that weren’t ankle-deep in sewage! The conquistadors had never heard of such a thing.) Central America was not the only locus of prosperity. Thousands of miles north, John Smith, of Pocahontas fame, visited Massachusetts in 1614, before it was emptied by disease, and declared that the land was “so planted with Gardens and Corne fields, and so well inhabited with a goodly, strong and well proportioned people … [that] I would rather live here than any where.”
and another excerpt:
In as yet unpublished research the archaeologists Eduardo Neves, of the University of São Paulo; Michael Heckenberger, of the University of Florida; and their colleagues examined terra preta in the upper Xingu, a huge southern tributary of the Amazon. Not all Xingu cultures left behind this living earth, they discovered. But the ones that did generated it rapidly—suggesting to Woods that terra preta was created deliberately. In a process reminiscent of dropping microorganism-rich starter into plain dough to create sourdough bread, Amazonian peoples, he believes, inoculated bad soil with a transforming bacterial charge. Not every group of Indians there did this, but quite a few did, and over an extended period of time.
When Woods told me this, I was so amazed that I almost dropped the phone. I ceased to be articulate for a moment and said things like “wow” and “gosh.” Woods chuckled at my reaction, probably because he understood what was passing through my mind. Faced with an ecological problem, I was thinking, the Indians fixed it. They were in the process of terraforming the Amazon when Columbus showed up and ruined everything.
Heterosexual: Male-identifying individual sexually attracted to a female-identifying individual, and vice-versa.
Homosexual: Someone attracted to someone of the same gender as themselves.
Bisexual: Sexually attracted to two or more genders.
Polysexual: Sexually attracted to many genders, but not all.
Pansexual: Sexually attracted to all genders. (this and bisexual, and sometimes polysexual, are often considered to be the same thing and different people may simply identify as any one of them due to their own personal reasons)
Demisexual: Sexually attracted to people only after forming a bond with them first.
Asexual: Having no /sexual attraction/ to others; having no desire to have sex.
Heteroromantic: Male-identifying individual romantically attracted to female-identifying individuals, and vice-versa.
Homoromantic: Attracted romantically to the same gender.
Biromantic: Attracted romantically to two or more genders
Polyromantic: Attracted to many genders (but not all)
Panromantic: Attracted romantically to all genders
Demiromantic: Romantically attracted to people only after forming a bond with them first.
Aromantic: Having no /romantic attraction/ to others; having no desire to be in a romantic relationship.
Polyamorous: Someone who is attracted to, and is comfortable with being in a relationship with more than one person at a time.
Transexual/Transgender (Term depending on generation and location): An individual who identifies as a gender other than the one they were assigned at birth to be. Often shortened to trans
Cisgender: Someone who identifies as the gender that they were assigned as at birth. (ex. matches their birth certificate) Often shortened to cis
Intersex: Someone who has ambiguous genitalia that doesn’t fit into our strict dichotomy of uterus or testes. Often forced into surgery to correct their genitals at a very young age, causing psychological and physical harm later in life
Nonbinary: Outside of the gender binary of male and female. (Can be used as an umbrella term or as its own identity)
Genderqueer: Outside of the gender binary. (**This is not an umbrella term like the post said before I edited it! Do not use this as an umbrella term for nonbinary individuals, simply use ‘nonbinary’. Queer is considered a slur and not everyone likes to be associated with the word)
Agender: Someone who feels gender neutral, or someone who experiences a ‘lack’ of gender.
Bigender: Someone who identifies as two separate genders.
Trigender: Someone who identifies as three separate genders.
Genderfluid: A gender that changes, or is ‘fluid’.
Demigirl: Identifying partially as a woman, but not wholly.
Demiboy/guy: Identifying partially as a man, but not wholly.
Dmab: Designated Male at Birth.
Dfab: Designated Female at Birth.
Amab/Afab: Same as dmab/dmab, except with ‘assigned’ instead of ‘designted’.
Camab/Cafab: Same as previous, except prefixed by ‘coercively’, to highlight the lack of choice.
Reblog to inform! And if there’s any I missed or anything that should be clarified, please message me! Always looking to expand the proper vocab. : )
NO NO NO!
Stop lumping intersex people in with trans people! And for the love of G-d, STOP reducing us to these, poor, sad people whose only lot in life is to be mutilated and then otherwise only exist when someone wants to shittily justify the gender binary!
Yes, this. Thank you mod c. Also I wanted to point out that not every intersex person has “ambiguous” i.e. non-binary genitalia. And not all of us have dyadist surgery. The correct definition is as follows…
Intersex: Individuals who are born with sexual characteristics outside of the sex binary.
Sex Binary: The false, dyadist social construct that there are only two sexes, erasing intersex people. Sex is ACTUALLY a spectrum, much like sexuality/sexual orientation and gender.
Dyadism: Discrimination of intersex people.
Dyadic: Not intersex. (Much like cis is to trans.)
I know many people are concerned for Pakistan and as Pakistanis within the country and abroad, we all appreciate it and feel grateful for it.
But what we don’t need is an over-simplification of the events taking place in Pakistan at the moment.
It is very easy to accept bits and pieces of information from here and then and regurgitate it until it doesn’t make sense anymore.
Please remain wary of ISPR-sourced links; they are the military cited info-bits and if you study our history, you will see that the military uses civilians against each other and then appoints itself as the guarantor of “democracy.”
Please also understand that Imran Khan and Qadri have their own class interests to pursue and it is more than obvious that they do not care about the civilians on ground sacrificing themselves.
If they did, you wouldn’t see them behind bulletproof shields, a luxury their supporters do not have at this moment.
Please also remain aware of the fact that this case is not a case of choice: Pakistanis are quashed in the middle of three different entities that care very little for the average man and woman.
First is the Military institution that has America’s covert and overt funding and support; this institution presently approves of Khan and Qadri.
Second is the civilian leadership that works in cahoots, more often than not, with the same military but remains invested in its own nepotism and rigging (the dominant complaint from citizens today).
Third is the judicial institution that oscillates between civilian and military positioning but rarely provides justice to the common man and woman.
This development also comes at a time when there is a US-funded PK-executed military operation taking place in Waziristan.
By fragmenting the attention toward the barbaric offensive against Pakistani civilians, the Army and the Civilian leadership has everyone tied to the capital.
There’s a lot going on and reducing it to a rushed post doesn’t help anyone, least of all the Pakistanis.
S. Ijaz sums it up wisely:
The illusion of civilian, democratic supremacy has been the primary casualty of the fiasco thus far; the velvet coup is upon us already.
The real possibility is that it will reduce the business of all governance to politics of survival; one long day at a time.
The non-existent debate on social and economic rights will remain non-existent. There will be no time or energy for institutional reforms.
In due course, the saturation point with the political drama, with the shenanigans of Imran and Qadri, on the one hand, and the indifference of Nawaz Sharif, will be reached on the other.
The recently politicised urban middle class will go back to normal life, shrugging their shoulders and with the customary, “they are all the same”.
The democratic project undermined now, will diminish further, perhaps worse, it will create a vacuum yet again for a demagogue egoist, another Imran Khan with hollow rhetoric to come in another few years.
We do not need that.
At the end of the day, when the middle class goes back to a lull, the working class, poor Pakistani will face the viciousness of all three institutions once more, even worse than before.
Please keep these points in mind when you reblog and share photos.
It’s easy sharing context-less info but it has a dangerous outcome: You oversimplify a country’s history to a meme and we all know how dismissive and disrespectful that is.
Please be mindful of these things.
(breaks added for reader accessibility)
> trying to separate sex workers from pole dancing
> trying to condemn sex work while praising pole dancing
> acting like it wasnt fucking sex workers who brought pole dancing into the mainstream
> acting like its “totally feminist” to steal these moves from sex workers and then act like it’s dirty when they do it
aw man it’s the first time since I’ve been sick that I feel motivated to do things yeah!! did laundry! dyeing my hair rn, making a list of things to tell the doctor tomorrow.
and I’m am going to make delicious spicy veggie soup!!
yeah!! taking care of me ^w^